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NC State Extension

IPM

Pest and plant disease management consumes a large portion of resources, time, and money to maintain plant quality. Setting aside time for someone dedicated to scouting pests deliberately with a scouting plan is one of the greatest assets in the continuing and never ending strategy to manage and control pests to maintain plant material. Below are several “long reads” to convince you to adopt this strategy as well as begin monitoring for pests or at least utilizing passive scouting strategies to determine when pests have emerged.

Philosophy, Scouting and Monitoring

Technical Publications

  • Herms, D. 2004. Using degree days & plant phenology to predict pest emergence. Excellent primer on using growing degree days, complete with GDD for various insects. In: V. Krischik and J. Davidson, eds. IPM of Midwest Landscapes, pp. 49-59. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Publication 58-07645, 316 pp.
  • Green et al. 1990. Systematic approach to diagnosing plant damage. Excellent beginning reference to determine what might be damaging plants. Includes great comparisons between fungus/bacteria, and various insect pests. Not specific to plant genera, this is a big picture reference to help narrow down what is causing plant damage observed. ORNAMENTALS NORTHWEST ARCHIVES. 1990. Vol.13, Issue 6. Pages ii-24.
  • LeBude et al. 2012. Assessing IPM use in nurseries in SE USA. A rather lengthy survey of container and field grower’s use of IPM. Prepare to be attacked by lots of tables. The data are organized into three groups of IPM users in descending use of the principles. Learn which techniques growers are using often and determine which ones might need more research and education to implement into production systems.
  • Griesbach et al. 2011. Safe procurement and production manual. A systems approach for the production of healthy nursery stock. This takes a systems approach to preventing pests in nurseries by documenting critical control points in the system and offering myriad ideas to improve sanitation and prevention. Also talks about certification of nurseries for shipping plants. By John A. Griesbach, Jennifer L. Parke, Gary A. Chastagner, Niklaus J. Grünwald and John Aguirre. Oregon Association of Nurseries, Wilsonville, Oregon.
  • Fulcher et al. 2012 Stakeholder vision of future direction and strategies for southeastern U.S. nursery pest research and extension programming. The focus group and survey format effectively identified grower needs that will help inform nursery producers and guide university Extension and research professionals, university administrators, industry associations, and state and federal government officials toward efficient resource allocation. These prioritizations explain the current state-of-need across a diverse agricultural industry segment and will help further refine future strategic action plans for nursery integrated pest management (IPM) and emerging critical nursery crop pest issues. Another excellent publication from the Southern Nursery IPM (SNIPM) Working Group.

Extension Publications

  • Fulcher 2012 W142 Scouting and Monitoring Pests of Deciduous Trees during Nursery Production. This is targeted directly at the nursery industry and the system of IPM described here has been proven effective in nurseries to save money. Dr. Amy F. Fulcher at U. of Tennessee has honed this system for more than a decade into an efficient, productive and effective way of scouting pests, monitoring outbreaks, and uses the least toxic alternative to reduces both spray applications and the amount of chemical applied, and produces the greatest management of target pests.
  • Lebude and Fulcher (eds.). 2015. Pest Management Strategic Plan for Container and Field-Produced Nursery Crops in FL, GA, KY, NC, SC, TN, and VA. A Pest Managment Strategic Plan (PMSP) collaborative effort from the Southern Nursery Integrated Pest Management (SNIPM) working group that contains key pest profiles for insects, plant diseases, and weeds. There are scouting and monitoring techniques listed, cultural practices discussed, and beneficial insects included for preventing pests in field and container production of ornamentals. This is a revision of the 2011 PMSP funded by the Southern IPM Center, without whom this wonderful publication or SNIPM would not exist.
  • Ward et al 2012. Woody Plant Disease Management Guide for Nurseries and Landscapes. Comprehensive in scope, relevant in topics addressed, and provides scouting, monitoring and management information for plant diseases. From COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE• UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 ID-88 Woody Plant Disease Management Guide for Nurseries and Landscapes Nicole A. Ward and Cheryl A. Kaiser, Department of Plant Pathology; Sarah J. Vanek, Winston C. Dunwell, and William M. Fountain, Department of Horticulture; Reviewed by Kenny W. Seebold and Paul A. Vincelli, Department of Plant Pathology.
  • Sadoff, C. 2011 Developing an IPM program for Nurseries. Purdue Univ. Ext.
    Purdue Extension offers a complete document with strategies, references, and how-to’s for IPM in nurseries. A must-have for any agent’s toolkit.
  • SNIPM. 2011. Crop profile for field and container nurseries in GA KY NC SC TN. Another published manual from the tremendously prolific Southern Nursery IPM (SNIPM) Working Group. Profiles of key pests, key crops, and critical issues for plants grown in the southeast US. SNIPM thanks the Southern Region IPM Center for funding this project. Without the financial support of the SRIPM Center this document would not be possible.
  • 2017 Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings. This pest control guide was a project of the Southern Nursery IPM Working Group (SNIPM) and collaborators. In it, you will find up to date information about pest control products used in nursery crops, greenhouse crops and ornamental landscape plantings. This publication supplements the more comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) manuals for trees and shrubs from SNIPM.
  • Hale. 1999. Decision-making handbook for insect and mite pests of ornamental plants. Comprehensive publication about scouting insects and mites, suing traps, various chemicals, and calculating growing degree days. Agricultural Extension Service. The University of Tennessee PB 1623
  • Chappell et al. 2012. Top 10 nursery IPM practices in SEUSA. A quick, collaborative effort from U. Georgia and other universities on several IPM practices.
  • Baker et al. 2004. Crop profile for ornamental plants in NC. Crop profiles provide an overview of the industry and the general insect, plant disease, and weed pests that are challenges. Chemicals are also listed to manage these pests.
  • Ruhl et al. 2008. Diagnosing herbicide injury on garden and landscape plants. Discusses various classes of herbicides and how they may cause damage and what it might look like on plants generally. Ruhl, G, F Whitford, S Weller, M Dana, M Putnam, D Childs, R Lerner. Purdue Plant & Pest Diagnostic Laboratory. visit www.ppdl.purdue.edu and www.btny.purdue.edu.
  • Halcomb M. 2012. Field Nursery Weed Control. In this publication from retired U. Tennessee Nursery Specialist, Mark Halcomb, you’ll learn from decades of field intelligence how to: Better understanding herbicides; Activation; timing the application; useful facts about the commonly used preemergence herbicides; compare the costs of potential tank mixes; fall applications; selective and non-selective post-emergent herbicides special problem weeds; management of the Enviromist.
  • Robinson, Fare, and Halcomb 2010. Weed Management in Annuals, Perrenials, and Herbaceous Ground Covers. Excellent reference from University of Tennessee for plants that are easily injured from herbicide applications.

General References

  • Mini-Poster of Monitoring Borers in NC Nurseries. Use this handout in the field to discuss monitoring and trapping, identification, damage symptoms, chemical control, and date of first emergence. Work was supported by the North Carolina Nursery and Landscape Association.
  • IPMPro mobile application for scouting, pest I.D., cultural and chemical recommendations
  • NC State University Extension IPM portal. Provides resources for many crops including ornamentals.
  • Grieshop, R. Sampling as part of IPM. An interactive pdf of a powerpoint presentation that discusses sampling techniques for use in IPM from Michigan State Dept. of Entomology.
  • USDA. 2013. National roadmap for IPM. This document increases nationwide communication in key focus areas and identifies strategies for IPM research, implementation, and measurement for all pests. The future direction of IPM needs is discussed.
Dry bucket trap for trapping and monitoring pests
Wing trap hung 4 feet off the ground in a nursery.
Ethanol trap for granulate ambrosia beetle monitoring.
Changing the dogwood borer septum pheromone lure
Peeling the sticky backing off a pheromone lure to place in a wingtrap.
Changing the pheromone lure in a wing trap.
First emergence or first trapping of a peachtree borer in a wingtrap.
Counting and removing insects from a wing trap. Peachtree borers in this case.
Using beat sheets and 7x, 10x or 16x handlens to scout conifers and look for mites.
Using a beat sheet to scout hemlocks for mites or scales.

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Cultural Techniques

  • Vanek, Seagraves and Potter 2012. Maples choose their battles against common insect and mite pests. Relevant information about which maple cultivars are tolerant of common insect and mite pests. One of the easiest ways to prevent pest problems is to plant trees that are tolerant or not susceptible to pests. This article determines which ones met these criteria for a number of common maple pests. Vanek, S., B. Seagraves, and D. Potter. 2012. Fall Nursery News. pp. 11-15.

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Biological Control

Extension Publications

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Pest Identification

Extension Publications

  • Potter and Potter 2008 Insect borers of trees and shrubs. Discusses damage caused by both clearwing and beetle borers to various hosts, ways to prevent infestation, and how to control insects. Potter, D.A. and MF Potter. University Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Extension Service. ENT-43.
  • Suomia. 2006. Scale insects on ornamentals. Wonderful reference for identification, life stage, and control of the major scales affecting ornamental plants. Suomia, D. Washington State University, College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences EB1552E.
  • Gill et al. 2003. Controlling a Major Nursery Pest Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius). Excelllent treatment of a common and destructive nursery pest. Gill S, P Shrewsbury, R Reeser Technician, Central Maryland Research and Education Center, University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 805.
  • Parsons, G. 2008. Emerald Ash Borer: A guide to identification and comparison to similar species. Tremendous photos, descriptions, and guidelines to identify many buprestids and compare them to emerald ash borer. GL Parsons, Department of Entomology, Michigan State University November 2008.
  • Childs 2008. How to recognize Asian long-horned beetle. Vivid pictures, great descriptions of both the insect and the symptoms on the tree. Also discusses how to report a finding. RD Childs: UMass Extension Landscape, Nursery and Urban Forestry Program.

General References

  • Gill, R.J. 1988 Soft Scales of California. Technical Series 01 An exhaustive reference on the subject with color photos, taxonomic keys and descriptions. Raymond J. Gill, Associate Insect Biosystematist, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, California, USA.

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Regulatory

  • NCDA&CS 2007 Imported Fire Ant Treatment Manual. Everything you need to know about treating and being compliant for IFA in all aspects of nursery production, e.g. field, container, ball and burlap, topical, incorporation, and drench.
  • Framework for a Systems Approach to Nursery Certification National Plant Board 2012. Framework for a Systems Approach to Nursery Certification. National Plant Board 2012. W.N. Dixon, M.E. Cooper, A. Posadas, G. Friisoe, C. P. Schulze, G. Haun, K. Rauscher. Lays out the argument for using this technique to be proactive in managing pests rather than reactive, which is the model used currently for nursery inspection.
  • Posadas 2013. Systems Approach to Nursery Certification (SANC) 159116. A presentation that does a great job of explaining both the reasoning and application of the SANC system. This Framework for SANC is based on a HACCP-type approach and reduced to a Critical Control Point System (CCPS). Aurelio Posadas, NPB.

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Chemical Pesticides

Technical Publications

  • Cloyd 2011. Pesticide mixtures and rotations: Are these viable resistance mitigation strategies? A mini-review that discusses the two strategies to delay resistance. The author concludes that either strategy should be incorporated within alternative pest management tactics of cultural and biological control, and sanitation. RA Cloyd 2011 Pest Technology 4:14-18.
  • Insecticide resistance action committee (IRAC) mode of action MOA classification. Learn about which chemicals might causes resistance in arthropods and how to avoid that by alternating MoA.
  • Hopwood et al 2016. Are neonicotinoids killing bees? Xerces Society. A Review of Research into the Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Bees, with Recommendations for Action. The latest information on how these compounds affect insects with an ornamental focus included. Discusses impacts worldwide and in U.S. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. 2012. J Hopwood, M Vaughan, M Shepherd, D Biddinger, E Mader, SH Black, and C Mazzacano.

Extension Publications

General References

  • Wainwright-Evans, S. 2007. Facts about miticides. An excerpt from the Buglady’s article in Nursery Management.
  • Cloyd 2012. Pesticide Mixtures. Understanding Their Use in Horticultural Production Systems. Pesticides such as insecticides and miticides are still the
    primary means of controlling or regulating many arthropod
    (insect and mite) pests in horticultural production systems.
  • Neonicotinoids come under fire. 2012. News from Nursery Management. A nursery production perspective about the use of these compounds and their affect on non-target insects.

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