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NC State Extension

Cultural Practices

Cultural practices should be visited first before making any changes to production. For example, changing production behavior and adding value by incorporating cover crops into soils, pruning and staking plants to improve quality, increasing success overwintering plants, and recycling plastics and wastes.

Cover Crops

Technical Publications

Extension Publications

General References

Videos

Managing Cover Crops: Part 1

Managing Cover Crops: Part 2

Photos

Ryegrass in nursery production Ryegrass in nursery production
Tilling planting rows Tilling planting rows
Tye grass at anthesis Tye grass at anthesis
Grains and legumes together Grains and legumes together
Rye cover crops Rye cover crops
Cover crop row middles Cover crop row middles
Grains and legumes together Grains and legumes together
Crimson clover rye and hairy vetch Crimson clover rye and hairy vetch
Crimson clover and hairy vetch Crimson clover and hairy vetch (2)
Crimson clover and hairy vetch Crimson clover and hairy vetch (1)
Cover crops establishment November Cover crop establishment November
Cover crop establishment January Cover crop establishment January
Cover crop establishment April Cover crop establishment April
Broadcast cover crops September Broadcast cover crops September
Portioning out seed before sowing Portioning out seed before sowing
Austrian winter pea with vetch Austrian winter pea with vetch
Mowing cover crops Mowing cover crops
Oats hairy vetch crimson clover Oats hairy vetch crimson clover
Light seed incorporation with disc Light seed incorporation with disc
Hairy vetch barley Hairy vetch barley (1)
Emily Berstein name tag Emily Berstein name tag

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Staking

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Pruning

Pruning is probably the single most important practice to improve quality of shade trees and woody ornamentals. Learn methods, theories, grading strategies and best practices below.

Extension Publications

General References

  • Bilderback. What’s pruning got to do with quality? Dr. Bilderback uses an annotated power point document to address pruning as a means to improve quality and meet industry specifications.
  • Florida Grades & Standards for Trees. Learn what makes trees rate as high quality by following the steps in this manual. The Florida Grades and Standards are an excellent resource for growers, clients, homeowners and extension agents to agree on what constitutes quality in shade trees.
  • American Standard for Nursery Stock by AmericanHort. These are the guidelines for quality for all nursery stock sold in the United States published in 2014. ANSI Z60.1–2014. American Nursery & Landscape Association; 1000 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 300; Washington, DC 20005.

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Overwintering

Technical Publications

Extension Publications

  • LeBude et al. 2012 Preparing nursery crops for winter in the Southeast US. Covers how plants become dormant and the abiotic factors that affect this process. Provides examples of various forms of overwintering plants from pushing them together all the way to heated greenhouses. AV LeBude, TE Bilderback, HT Krauss NC State Univ., SA White Clemson Univ., M. Chappell Univ. Georgia, JS Owen Virginia Tech.
  • LeBude et al. 2012. Low investment propagation or overwintering house. A quick leaflet to build s small house for crop protection. This document stands as a supplement to Preparing Nursery Crops for Winter in the Southeast. LeBude AV, TE Bilderback, and B Fair. NC State University Cooperative Extension.
  • Westerfeld and Lindstrom 2004. Winter Protection of Ornamental Plants. Quick reference for preventing injury and what to do after a freeze. R Westerfield and O Lindstrom, Professor of Horticulture Cooperative Extension Service The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Circular 872.

Photos

Wiggle wire to hold plastic in grooves on bandboard, kneeboard, or endwalls Wiggle wire to hold plastic in grooves on bandboard, kneeboard, or endwalls.
Row covers on field liners Row covers on field liners at Kobes nursery.
Metal fasteners for holding plastic to bandboard, hipboard, or endwall Metal fasteners for holding plastic to bandboard, hipboard, or endwall
Hole cut in plastic sidewall to improve convection currents in spring Hole cut in plastic sidewall to improve convection currents in spring
Metal fasteners holding plastic to bandboard, hipboard, or endwall Metal fasteners holding plastic to bandboard, hipboard, or endwall
Low investment, partially ground overwintering structure that captures insulating properties of soil Low investment, partially ground overwintering structure that captures insulating properties of soil
Holes cut in plastic sidewall to improve convection currents in spring Holes cut in plastic sidewall to improve convection currents in spring
Endwall of structure showing opaque plastic held down by clips and mesh batten tape. Endwall of structure showing opaque plastic held down by clips and mesh batten tape.
Balled and burlapped trees healed in with mulch Balled and burlapped trees healed in with mulch to prevent freezing
Overwintering structure with end open for ventilation Overwintering structure with end open for ventilation in spring
Approximately 20' wide overwintering structure covered in opaque white plastic Approximately 20′ wide overwintering structure covered in opaque white plastic
Overwintering quonset style structures without plastic Overwintering quonset style structures without plastic
Batten fence strapping Batten fence strapping
Batten vinyl tape white Batten vinyl tape white
Overwintering structure with slightly extended sidewalls to increase use of edge space Overwintering structure with slightly extended sidewalls to increase use of edge space
white cloth mulch white cloth
winter protection winter protection
white cloth clamp white cloth clamp
plastic hold down plastic hold down
straw insulation straw insulation
greenhouse opening greenhouse opening
worker securing white cloth securing white cloth
greenhouse with snow Greenhouse with snow
Greenhouse with plants covered with white cloth Greenhouse with plants covered with white cloth
Greenhouse with snow Greenhouse with snow

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Recycling

  • New Life Plastics
    Excerpt from an e-mail from the company. Pots need to be “shaken” out and stacked. There are typically only a few types of plastic used for these pots. Polystyrene, High Density Polyethylene and sometimes Polypropylene. It is helpful if they keep these types sorted and we need large volumes. It is freight prohibitive for us to send a tractor trailer out to only pick up one skid of the pots. Nest pots about 4’ high, with multiple stacks, on a wooden skid, and stretch wrap them. When they get twenty or so skids, call us. Our minimum pick-up is 7,000 lbs if it’s in NC, and we can’t pick up 2,000 in one place and 3,000 in another. Try to outreach with other nurseries in the area to obtain as many pots as possible, or deliver them to us.
  • Recycling Options For Agricultural Plastics
    The attached document lists businesses that take plastic film, pots or both and supplies the contact information for each person at the firm. It can also be obtained from http://ncagplastics.org/.

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